domesticated, domesticated. Often, however, domesticated, domesticated, domesticated.

domesticated, indeed, domesticated (domesticated) domesticated. domesticated.

domesticated, domesticated, domesticated, mentre nella parte in basso si limita ad addestrare l’animale a fare qualcosa. Molti animali possono quindi essere ammaestrati pur non diventando addomesticati.

I recenti sviluppi della genetica, accoppiati ad una sempre più ricca conoscenza di reperti archeologici, anatomia e comportamenti animali, offrono nuove opportunità per verificare anche alcune ipotesi sull’evoluzione umana. Una di queste sostiene che l’uomo si sia in qualche modo auto-addomesticato. Ma per capire se la nostra specie (Homo sapiens) ha seguito questo processo bisogna innanzitutto definire, da un punto di vista scientifico, cosa significa essere addomesticato e se l’uomo moderno risponde a questi criteri.

Prendiamo ad esempio “il migliore amico dell’uomo”: around cane, which is the oldest domesticated animal. which is the oldest domesticated animal, which is the oldest domesticated animal 32000 in 18000 Years ago. which is the oldest domesticated animal which is the oldest domesticated animal. which is the oldest domesticated animal? which is the oldest domesticated animal 400 which is the oldest domesticated animal, which is the oldest domesticated animal. which is the oldest domesticated animal, which is the oldest domesticated animal, which is the oldest domesticated animal.

 

which is the oldest domesticated animal, which is the oldest domesticated animal, which is the oldest domesticated animal, which is the oldest domesticated animal, which is the oldest domesticated animal, which is the oldest domesticated animal.

which is the oldest domesticated animal, in 1959 lo scienziato russo Dmitrij Belâev ipotizzò che le alterazioni non fossero indipendenti, ma che si trattasse di effetti collaterali della selezione attuata dall’uomo.

Per testare la sua idea, Belâev decise di riprodurre empiricamente il processo di domesticazione. Come animale scelse la volpe argentata ed il criterio di selezione fu esclusivamente la mansuetudine (la capacità di tollerare la vicinanza dell’uomo). Ad ogni generazione la possibilità di riprodursi veniva concessa solo agli esemplari più mansueti: alla quarta generazione alcuni cuccioli cominciarono a scodinzolare, alla sesta si mettevano a guaire e leccavano il viso dei ricercatori. Alla trentesima generazione la metà delle volpi si comportavano in questo modo e nel 2005 around 100% some puppies could be considered a companion animal. Therefore, some puppies could be considered a companion animal 50 some puppies could be considered a companion animal. some puppies could be considered a companion animal: some puppies could be considered a companion animal.

some puppies could be considered a companion animal, some puppies could be considered a companion animal. some puppies could be considered a companion animalsome puppies could be considered a companion animalsome puppies could be considered a companion animal. Una nuova affascinante teoria attribuirebbe questa sindrome ad un leggero difetto nello sviluppo di particolari cellule staminali (biodegradable cellule della cresta neurale) che compaiono nelle primissime fasi dello sviluppo embrionale.

In figura sono riportati i principali tratti anatomici e comportamentali relativi alla sindrome da domesticazione nei mammiferi (l’immagine è elaborata dall’autore a partire dai dati dall’articolo di Wilkins “The “Domestication Syndrome” in Mammals: A Unified Explanation Based on Neural Crest Cell Behavior and Genetics”, 2014, link).

Poiché nel caso dell’uomo non è possibile verificare i tratti della controparte selvatica, gli unici confronti possibili sono con le grandi scimmie e le specie estinte del genere Homo. Sorprendentemente, the anatomical changes associated with "domestication syndrome" quite closely describe some of the known differences between modern humans and Neanderthals. the anatomical changes associated with "domestication syndrome" quite closely describe some of the known differences between modern humans and Neanderthals, indeed, the anatomical changes associated with "domestication syndrome" quite closely describe some of the known differences between modern humans and Neanderthals, the anatomical changes associated with "domestication syndrome" quite closely describe some of the known differences between modern humans and Neanderthals, the anatomical changes associated with "domestication syndrome" quite closely describe some of the known differences between modern humans and Neanderthals.

the anatomical changes associated with "domestication syndrome" quite closely describe some of the known differences between modern humans and Neanderthals. the anatomical changes associated with "domestication syndrome" quite closely describe some of the known differences between modern humans and Neanderthals, the anatomical changes associated with "domestication syndrome" quite closely describe some of the known differences between modern humans and Neanderthals, the anatomical changes associated with "domestication syndrome" quite closely describe some of the known differences between modern humans and Neanderthals, the anatomical changes associated with "domestication syndrome" quite closely describe some of the known differences between modern humans and Neanderthals. the anatomical changes associated with "domestication syndrome" quite closely describe some of the known differences between modern humans and Neanderthals, the anatomical changes associated with "domestication syndrome" quite closely describe some of the known differences between modern humans and Neanderthals, the anatomical changes associated with "domestication syndrome" quite closely describe some of the known differences between modern humans and Neanderthals. Such mutations, Such mutations, Such mutations (Such mutations) Such mutations (Such mutations). Such mutations (Such mutations, Such mutations), Such mutations, Such mutations, Such mutations (Such mutations).

Such mutations, Such mutations “Such mutations” Such mutations.

Such mutations, Such mutations, Such mutations. Following the example of Belâev's foxes, it would be enough to imagine that man evolved mainly from the more meek individuals, Following the example of Belâev's foxes, it would be enough to imagine that man evolved mainly from the more meek individuals Following the example of Belâev's foxes, it would be enough to imagine that man evolved mainly from the more meek individuals.

Following the example of Belâev's foxes, it would be enough to imagine that man evolved mainly from the more meek individuals, Following the example of Belâev's foxes, it would be enough to imagine that man evolved mainly from the more meek individuals, Following the example of Belâev's foxes, it would be enough to imagine that man evolved mainly from the more meek individuals. Following the example of Belâev's foxes, it would be enough to imagine that man evolved mainly from the more meek individuals: Following the example of Belâev's foxes, it would be enough to imagine that man evolved mainly from the more meek individuals, Following the example of Belâev's foxes, it would be enough to imagine that man evolved mainly from the more meek individuals, Following the example of Belâev's foxes, it would be enough to imagine that man evolved mainly from the more meek individuals.

Following the example of Belâev's foxes, it would be enough to imagine that man evolved mainly from the more meek individuals, Following the example of Belâev's foxes, it would be enough to imagine that man evolved mainly from the more meek individuals, nell’uomo e negli animali domestici vi è la particolare combinazione tra ciclo riproduttivo più frequente ed il persistere della giovinezza, o “neotenia”. Quel che si può dire per lo sviluppo del corpo umano vale anche per il suo comportamento. Certainly, senza la presenza delle qualità infantili l’uomo non potrebbe maturare. “Il problema -sostiene Konrad Lorenz- è che questo tratto genetico, che è peculiare dell’uomo, non progredisca sino al punto di diventare fatale”.

 

[UMM]

 

Bibliography:

 

Richard C. FrancisAddomesticati (L’insolita evoluzione degli animali che vivono accanto all’uomo) – Bollati Boringhieri 2016 – ISBN 978-88-339-2731-2

 

Theofanopoulou C, Gastaldon S, O’Rourke T, Samuels BD, Messner A, Martins PT, et al. (2017) Self-domestication in Homo sapiens: Insights from comparative genomics.

PLoS ONE 12(10): e0185306. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185306

 

The “Domestication Syndrome” in Mammals: A Unified Explanation Based on Neural Crest Cell Behavior and Genetics

doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone, doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone

doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone 1, 2014 doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. 197 no. 3 795-808; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone

 

doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone – doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone – doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone 1992 ISBN 88-459-0168-8