medicine and research in biology. how DNA works, proteins, vascular system, but also new treatments and medical research. Biomedical lab stuff

How- DNA does -not- change

2021-08-03T10:16:51+02:003 August 2021|Categories: Medicine and Research|Tags: , , , |

With the problem of RNA vaccines, fear of changes in our DNA has also risen. What are we really talking about? There is this risk? Let's try to explain it. The structure of DNA is a relatively young discovery, which has less than 70 years. Editing - modification- genica has even fewer years of history behind it, so much so that the most advanced technique that is known won the Nobel only last year. So we can say that the unscientific community, who is not so familiar with these hi-tech stuff, he didn't have much time to understand concepts like genetics, the [...]

The epigenetic supersimilarity of monozygotic twins

2021-07-14T21:41:06+02:0014 July 2021|Categories: Medicine and Research|Tags: , , |

Monozygotic twins are identical individuals born from the fertilization of a single egg cell from a sperm that have the same genetic makeup. The common elements between two identical twins do not only concern genetics but also involve epigenetics, that is the set of molecular mechanisms that regulate the expression of genes without modifying the DNA. A type of epigenetic modification studied in twins is methylation which consists in the addition of a methyl group (-CH3) to a nitrogenous base. Through the study of metastable epialleles (ME), varianti epigenetiche impostate nell'embrione precoce e mantenute durante la successiva differenziazione cellulare, it was possible to observe that [...]

Multiple sclerosis: a technology against the fatigue

2021-07-02T13:44:07+02:002 July 2021|Categories: Medicine and Research|Tags: , , , , |

Multiple sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the central nervous system, also referred to as "autoimmune" due to the reaction of the immune system directed towards the body. The immune defenses attack certain parts of the central nervous system, recognizing them as foreign bodies and activating an inflammatory process that can damage or cause the loss of myelin, a substance that lines nerve fibers like a sheath, and the cells that produce it. This process can take place in various areas, affecting the optic nerves, il cervelletto e il midollo spinale ed è per questo motivo che i sintomi della malattia possono essere diversi a [...]

DNA come biomateriale

2021-07-02T16:22:46+02:001 July 2021|Categories: Medicine and Research|Tags: , , , |

Our genetic instructions are invaluable: DNA not only determines who we are, but it can also be used in medicine for gene therapy. It's not all: looking at it from a structural and physical point of view, a team of biotechnologists and materials physicists has developed the so-called "DNA hydrogels", dei polimeri la cui struttura è fatta di acidi nucleici e al cui interno troviamo dell’acqua. These can be used in various biomedical applications: in the formulation of drugs, in gene therapy and cell therapy approaches. DNA as a biomaterial shows qualities such as biocompatibility and biodegradability, that [...]

Serological tests and swabs: when and why to do them

2021-06-19T16:59:41+02:008 January 2021|Categories: Medicine and Research|Tags: , , , |

The pandemic has just begun, we all had heard of tests and swabs before: What are? What are they for? How many must be made, Why? What are false positives? A few months later, we started talking mainly about serological tests, sampling, antibodies and vaccine. A very common mistake has been to confuse the two types of tests: the swab and the serological. But these two procedures are very different from each other and must be done for different purposes, vediamo perché. First of all, when we talk about serological tests we have to talk about antibodies. Antibodies are "Y" shaped proteins, produced by cells [...]

Rice production with CRISP-Cas9

2021-07-14T13:13:05+02:0021 March 2020|Categories: Medicine and Research, Technology|Tags: , |

CRISPR-Cas9 is a gene editing technique capable of modifying the genome or the complex of genes of a cell. It works like a molecular scissor that can cut and stitch DNA very precisely, eliminating harmful sequences or replacing them and correcting the mutations present. To date, this technique has been used in various fields ranging from biology to agriculture and indeed, a group of scientists used the CRISPR system to be able to increase rice production in some areas of Africa, subject to adverse weather conditions. The study carried out by some researchers of the University of Milan together with the University of [...]

PEA: an all natural pain reliever

2021-03-14T13:05:22+01:0015 June 2019|Categories: Medicine and Research|

by Anna Lucia A. The PEA: (palmitoyl-ethanol-ammide) it is a natural substance produced by our body to defend cells from chronic damage or inflammation. It was discovered in 1957 but only in 1993 Dr. Rita Levi Montalcini explained how it works by winning the Nobel Prize. Chemically speaking PEA is an amide of an endogenous fatty acid. It belongs to the class of nuclear factor antagonists, that is, of those molecules capable of interacting directly with DNA by crossing the nuclear membrane, usually difficult to penetrate. In fact, PEA is thought to bind to specific nuclear receptors, called PPAR, is that [...]

Partner: new studies on HIV transmissibility

2021-03-14T13:10:13+01:0011 May 2019|Categories: Medicine and Research|

In Carolina C. “Undectable equals untransmittable, U = U”, ovvero non rilevabile quindi non trasmissibile. After 40 years since the first case of HIV infection (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, causative agent of AIDS) si è giunti a questa, apparently simple, conclusion: se il ciclo replicativo del virus dell’HIV viene bloccato questo non si moltiplica, it does not circulate and consequently cannot infect new cells and new subjects. In 2014 un primo studio denominato PARTNER1 aveva già chiaramente dimostrato la tesi della “U=U” ma riguardava prevalentemente coppie eterosessuali. The follow-up to this study was recently published in the Lancet journal, PARTNER2, in which [...]

The rules of science and the game of vaccines

2021-07-15T20:02:37+02:004 January 2019|Categories: Medicine and Research|Tags: , , |

Vaccines are not safe al 100%, science says so. He says it serenely because, Luckily, no scientist would dare to say that something is sure to 100%. Thanks to scientific progress, however, we can be ambitious and aim for maximum safety and effectiveness. Unfortunately, however, when you say a vaccine is safe 98%, it looks like that 2% after all it is the scariest thing in the world. It is important to clarify; rowing against technological development cannot do any society good. It sounds clear and simple, but apparently it is not so shared. In the last few years [...]

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